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Head Injury Treatment

Alzheimer Disease

Introduction

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that seriously affects a person's ability to carry out daily activities. In Alzheimer's disease, the connections between brain cells and the brain cells themselves degenerate and die, causing a steady decline in memory and mental function. It slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. It begins slowly and gets worse over time. The main risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is increased age.

Types

  • Early onset AD: Symptoms appear before age 60. This type is much less common than late onset. However, it tends to get worse quickly. Early onset disease can run in families. Several genes have been identified.
  • Late onset AD: This is the most common type. It occurs in people age 60 and older. It may run in some families, but the role of genes is less clear.

Causes

The exact cause of AD is still unknown which makes mix of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors as probable causes. These factors affect each person differently. In some people, the disease may develop silently for many years before symptoms appear. These may include:

  • Age: Age is the greatest factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The likelihood of developing the condition doubles every five years after a person reaches 65 years of age. However, it is not just older people who are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.
  • Genetic inheritance: Genetic factors contribute to the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Though in most cases, if the patient has a close family member with the condition, his or her risk of developing it is only slightly increased.
  • Down's syndrome: People with Down's syndrome are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. This is because people with Down's syndrome have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which codes for a protein involved in the cause of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, people with Down's syndrome produce more abnormal protein, which could contribute to developing Alzheimer's disease.
  • Whiplash and head injuries: People who have had a severe head injury, or severe whiplash, (a neck injury caused by a sudden movement of the head forwards, backwards or sideways) have been found to be at a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.
  • Vascular disease: Several lifestyle factors and conditions associated with vascular disease can increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. These include:
    • Smoking
    • Obesity
    • Diabetes
    • High blood pressure
    • High cholesterol

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

 

  • Disorientation
  • Disturbed sleep
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Weight loss or a loss of appetite
  • Increased vulnerability to infection
  • Hallucinations, delusions, or paranoia
  • Poor or complete loss of short-term and long-term memory
  • A belief that you have done or experienced something that never happened
  • Difficulty changing position or moving from place to place without assistance
  • Incontinence – where you unintentionally pass urine (urinary incontinence) or stools (faecal or bowel incontinence)

 

Medical Test

There's no specific test that confirms you have Alzheimer's disease. Your doctor will make a judgment about whether Alzheimer's is the most likely cause of your symptoms based on the information you provide and the results of various tests that can help clarify the diagnosis. Alzheimer's disease can be diagnosed with complete accuracy only after death, when microscopic examination of the brain reveals the characteristic plaques and tangles. To help distinguish Alzheimer's disease from other causes of memory loss, doctors now typically rely on the following types of tests:

  • Physical and neurological exam: The doctor will perform a physical exam, and is likely to check your overall neurological health by testing your:
    • Reflexes
    • Muscle tone and strength
    • Ability to get up from a chair and walk across the room
    • Sense of sight and hearing
    • Coordination
    • Balance
    • Lab tests
    • Blood tests may help the doctor rule out other potential causes of memory loss and confusion, such as thyroid disorders or vitamin deficiencies.
  • Mental status testing: The doctor may conduct a brief mental status test to assess your memory and other thinking skills. Short forms of mental status testing can be done in about 10 minutes.
  • Neuropsychological testing: The doctor may recommend a more extensive assessment of your thinking and memory. Longer forms of neuropsychological testing, which can take several hours to complete, may provide additional details about your mental function compared with others' of a similar age and education level. This type of testing may be especially helpful if the doctor thinks you may have a very early stage of Alzheimer's disease or another dementia. These tests may also help identify patterns of change associated with different types of dementia and can help doctors estimate your ability to safely manage important activities, such as financial and medical decision making.
  • Brain imaging: Images of the brain are now used chiefly to pinpoint visible abnormalities related to conditions other than Alzheimer's disease such as strokes, trauma or tumors that may cause cognitive change. New imaging applications currently used primarily in major medical centers or in clinical trials may enable doctors to detect specific brain changes caused by Alzheimer's. Brain-imaging technologies include:
    • Computerized tomography (CT): X-rays pass through your body from various angles, and a computer uses this information to create cross-sectional images (slices) of your brain. It's currently used chiefly to rule out tumors, strokes and head injuries.
    • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): An MRI uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce detailed images of your brain. You lie on a narrow table that slides into a tube-shaped MRI machine, which makes loud banging noises while it produces images. MRIs are painless, but some people feel claustrophobic inside the machine and are disturbed by the noise. MRIs are currently used primarily to rule out other conditions that may account for cognitive symptoms.
    • Positron emission tomography (PET): During a PET scan, you'll be injected in a vein with a low-level radioactive tracer. You'll lie on a table while an overhead scanner tracks the tracer's flow through your brain. The tracer may be a special form of glucose (sugar) that shows overall activity in various brain regions. This can show which parts of your brain aren't functioning well.

Traditional Treatment

  • Undifferentiated adult stem cells can easily change their form and transform into the cells of countless organs and structures within the human body. Used in various the modern AD’s therapies, they can heal damaged fibers and rejuvenate failing cells using cell division, a process in which they multiply indefinitely.
  • Stem cell research has seen vast improvements in recent times with many new developments and discoveries being made. To know more on how Stem Cell India Research Centre can help you control progression of AD in your body, please Contact us today.

Stem Cell Treatment

Several clinical trials are going on all over the world, including India using to help patients suffering from DMD lead a normal life.

  • Stem Cell India Research Centre can offer you stem cell therapy using our proprietary technology.
  • These stem cells could be of various types viz. Hematopoietic (CD 34+), Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are processed and isolated using Good Manufacturing (GMP) and Good Lab Practices (GLP) and in accordance with AABB standards.
  • This novel therapy is based on a natural human protein that can significantly slow the muscle damage and improve its functions.
  • We are confident that using stem cell therapy, we can help the patient not only to reverse the disease process of the affected body part but also improve the overall quality of life.
  • Stem cells produced by Stem Cell India Research Centre are completely non-toxic, safe, easy to administer with an excellent probability of homing and engraftment with parent cell, tissue or organ. Our researchers and scientists work exhaustively to design accurate treatment protocols that have the capability to yield excellent results.
  • Depending upon the requirement on the patient, the stem cells can be procured from bone marrow or cord blood fat.
  • Stem Cell India Research Centre advises an early treatment to prevent rapid deterioration of strength in muscles. The stem cell therapy also helps avoid patient’s dependence on support for walking & other activities.

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