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Mental Retardation India

Introduction

About
Mental retardation is a condition diagnosed before the age of 18 years that includes below-average general intellectual function and lack of skills necessary for daily living. It has historically been defined as an Intelligence Quotient score below 70.
Mental retardation Syndrome is intellectual deficits associated with other medical and behavioral signs and symptoms. 
Non-syndromic mental retardation refers to intellectual deficits that appear without other abnormalities. 
Various conditions with mental retardation

  • Developmental Delay : The mental development of child is delayed leading to poor motor and communication skills. Such children catch up regular milestones of development later than the normal children.
  • Down’s Syndrome : Down’s Syndrome is a genetic disorder with characteristic mental retardation. 'Normal' people have 46 chromosomes but people with Down Syndrome have an extra 47th chromosome that interferes with their brain functions leading to mental retardation.
  • Autism/ ASD ( Autistic spectrum disorder) :This is a disorder characterized by poor social communication, repetition and liking of a particular object or habit. Autistic children have distortion of reality & they seem to be lost in their own world,do not make friends,inability to concenterate and display indifference to the surroundings, including people.
  • Dyslexia :Dyslexic children are quite difficult to identify as they have an average or above average intelligence but they have a major problem in reading, writing and arithmetic. This poses a problem for them in their school and academic life.They can be called as slow learners.
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU) : PKU is a rare metabolic disorder. People suffering from PKU lack an enzyme that is essential to break down an amino acid known as phenylalanine which is generally found in protein foods. The excessive amount of phenylalanine in the blood causes irreparable damage to the brain if left undetected. Common mental retardation symptoms in this disorder are vomiting, peculiar odour, eczema, fits, etc. The affected children suffer from poor body movements along with poor or no motor coordination and other neurological dysfunctions.
  • Asperger's Syndrome : Asperger's syndrome is a mild mental retardation form of autistic psychopathy. In this disorder, children learn to talk and acquire other skills perfectly at the right age. They have normal or above average intelligence and do daily chores efficiently. The only problem they have is impaired social interaction. Such people cannot express their emotions or reciprocate to other people's emotions.

Causes

Intellectual disabilities happen because the brain gets injured or a problem prevents the brain from developing normally. These problems can happen while the baby is growing inside the mother’s womb, during the baby's birth, or after the baby is born. Here are some problems that can cause intellectual disabilities:

  • Problems with the baby's genes that are in every cell and determine how the body will develop. (The baby inherits Genes from both the parents, so a baby might receive genes that are abnormal or the genes might change while the baby is developing.)
  • Problems during the pregnancy. Sometimes, the mother might get an illness or infection which can harm the baby. Taking certain medicines while pregnant can cause problems for the baby. Drinking alcohol or taking illegal drugs can also damage a baby's developing brain.
  • During childbirth, the baby doesn't get enough oxygen.
  • The baby is born way too early.
  • After being born, the baby gets a serious brain infection.
  • Any time in life, a serious head injury can hurt the brain and cause intellectual disabilities. Some of these disabilities are temporary and others can be permanent. (That's why it's important to wear your bike helmet and always wear a seat belt in the car!). Doctors figure out that someone has an intellectual disability by testing how well the person thinks and solves problems. If a problem is spotted, doctors and other professionals can work with the family to decide what type of help is needed.

Symptoms

Children with intellectual disabilities may show one or all of the following symptoms:

  • Continued infant-like behavior
  • Decreased learning ability
  • Failure to meet the markers of intellectual development
  • Inability to meet educational demands at school
  • Lack of curiosity

Note: Changes to normal behaviors depend on the severity of the condition. Mild retardation may be associated with a lack of curiosity and quiet behavior. Severe mental retardation is associated with infant-like behavior throughout life.

Medical Test

An assessment of age-appropriate adaptive behaviors can be made using developmental screening tests. The failure to achieve developmental milestones suggests mental retardation. The following may be signs of mental retardation:

  • Abnormal Denver developmental screening test
  • Adaptive behavior score below average
  • Development way below that of peers
  • Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores below 70 on a standardized IQ test
  • Autism Rating scale

Traditional Treatment

Many mentally retarded children need help with adaptive skills, which are daily living skills needed to survive, work and interact in the community. Teachers and parents can help a child work on these skills at both school and home. Some of these skills include:

  • Communicating with others
  • Taking care of personal needs (dressing, bathing, going to the bathroom)
  • Health and safety
  • Home living (helping to set the table, cleaning the house, or cooking dinner)
  • Social skills (manners, knowing the rules of conversation, getting along in a group, playing a game)
  • Reading, writing, and basic math and
  • As they get older, skills that will help them in the workplace

The vast majority (about 87%) of people with mental retardation will only be a little slower than average in learning new information and skills. When they are children, their limitations may not be obvious. Their mental retardation may not even be diagnosed until they get to school. As they reach adulthood, many people with mild retardation can live independently. Other people may not even consider them as having mental retardation. The remaining 13% of people with mental retardation score below 50 on IQ tests. These people will have significant difficulty keeping up in school, at home, and in the community. They will need more intensive support throughout their entire life.

Stem Cell Treatment

  • Stem Cell India Research Centre offers stem cell treatment for mental retardation. Stem cell therapy is a novel and effective approach to treating this specific condition and is based on the unique ability of stem cells to influence the metabolism & immune system to restore damaged cells and tissues.
    • Immunity
    • Metabolism
    • Learning capacity
    • Communication Ability
  • Improvement is reached through restoration of the lost (impaired) neuron connections and formation of the new neuron connections, speeding up brain reactions through improvement in synaptic transmission and development of these connections.
  • Based on our practice, we outline the expected improvements in the treated children after the stem cell therapy including
    • More adequate behavior at home and outside
    • Improved verbal skills
    • Writing skills improvement or development
    • Improved self-care skills
    • Improved attention span and concentration

If you wish to know more about how stem cell therapy can help you personally, ask the doctors at Stem Cell India Research Centre. We also encourage you to carefully study our stem cell transplantation methods and understand the different factors that may influence your decisions regarding the treatment. contact us for more information.

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